Amazing Amazon Mushrooms

Upcoming: MushRoaming Colombia 2 weeks in March 2020   
Article on our Ecuador trip in Feb. 2011
      Itinerary with detailed species list Ecuador 2011

 Amazing Amazon
Funga, Flora & Fauna Pictures from MushRoaming Ecuador & Bolivia
(all photos 
© Daniel Winkler unless otherwise stated)

 Funga - Mushrooms

Lentinus strigosus S.jpg
A beautiful purple Lentinus strigosus, the Bristled Sawgill or a species very close to it. In Northern America Lentinus strigosus a.k.a. Panus rudis grows on dead hardwood just as this mushroom does in the Amazon. When young  the purplish coloration of Lentinus strigosus is much more pronounced, with age the color fades.
It is also edible and is being cultivated. Here a link to an article looking into nutrient content depending on substrate.  
Lentinus crinitus, the Fringed Sawgill is a beautiful mushroom with an impressive coiffure. It is also an edible. The image above shows mature specimens. Although superficially it could be assumed to be related to Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes, Marasmiaceae, Agaricales). However Lentinus crinitus is a member of the Polyporaceae, Polyporales, which have only a few gilled mushrooms among them.
The convenient, light-weight, pocket-sized, laminated field guide contains images and brief descriptions of over 80 fungi, including their ecological niches and human uses. Over 20 of these mushrooms are unique to the Amazon, over 50 are found from Mexico to Argentina, and almost as many are found in other tropical zones around the world. This booklet offers a visual way to identify the most commonly encountered mushrooms with special attention to the most stunning and best edible Amazon mushrooms.
Below the Cordyceps page
Stinkhorns and other aliens from the Phallaceae
While on a night walk we found many Veiled stinkhorns, Phallus indusiatus [the former Dictyophora indusiata seems to be out again after DNA research]. They just had come up, ready for the Amazonian night life. Insects and most of the other creatures are active at night so the stinkhorn shares its stinky spores at night. The morning after, the party is over, all spores are gone and the horn is flaccid. When they just had freshly come up, we sniffed them out in the dark at first and then located them by flashlight, what fun!
A Lattice Mushroom, Clathrus sp, is quite spectacular although this specimen is already a bit collapsed, probably it was in full splendor the night before. No gleba, the spore containing stinky substance, left on this fungal frame. The insects cleaned off the  "tasty shit" to the last spore. We found it close to Jatun Sacha.
Staheliomyces cinctus
Staheliomyces cinctus, the rare and stunning Strangled stinkhorn is endemic to the neotropics. The Strangled stinkhorn is the sole member of the genus StaheliomycesCinctus literally means girded, belted, encircled. 
Madidi NP, Bolivia, Feb. 2013
Phallus Bolivia rain forest
Two stinkhorns, Phallus sp. we found in the Bolivian Amazon rain forest. Not sure which species yet. Madidi NP, Bolivia, Feb. 2013
Cordyceps - Caterpillar fungi and Allies
An Ophiocordyceps on a weevil with a whole bunch of fruiting bodies growing out of it that is quite similar to Ophiocordyceps curculionium. However DNA analyses by Joey Spatafora, OSU Corvallis, have shown that this is most likely a new species closely related to O. curculionium.

An ant probably infected by Ophiocordyceps australis, clearly visible is the red fertile tissue of the fruiting body. Note the white growths on the hind leg of the ant. It might be another parasitic fungus.
An Ophiocordyceps / Cordyceps I found in Mindo, sitting on top of an decaying, moss covered trunk. The site was in the cloud forest on the western slope of the Andes in Ecuador.
on my blog.
Close ups of the perithecia of Ophiocordyceps australis. What a great red these diminutive stromata display. The perithecia look close to maturity.
Cotylidia cluster DW S.jpg
Hydnopolyporus sp. or may be now a Cotylidia sp., a white convoluted Sparassis-like saprobic mushroom, among the Podoscyphaceae. Also its taste reminded us of a Sparassis, but it had a much tougher, leathery flesh.
Cotylidia aurantiaca, the Golden Stalked Rosette is another toughish wood-decayer in the Hymenochaetales (Family: Repetobasidiaceae)
The Amazon Blues
Clitocybula azurea babies DW S.jpg
Tiny Clitocybula azurea with a Cotylidia aurantiaca.
Light blue Clitocybula azurea is a beautiful wood decomposer in the Tricholomaceae and according to Petersen and Læssøe "a very characteristic agaric in low to mid level wet forests of Ecuador"
Indigo blue Leptonia in the Entolomataceae family. Larry Evans observed that they have "really cool angular spores".

Some Rainforest Edibles
Polyporus tricholoma, an edible tender polypore.
Favolus (Polyporus) tenuiculus is a soft-fleshed polypore that is widely eaten in the region.
The hairs on the margin pf this Polyporus make it a "tricholoma", meaning hairy.
A nice cluster of Lentinus concavus, a good edible after sufficient cooking. It was formerly misclassified as an Pleurotus
This Bolete was the only mushroom we found that looked like it could be a true BoletusHowever it is a Phlebopus. Several species occur in the Amazon including Phlebopus beniensis and Ph. brasilensis, a region otherwise home to very few members of the Boletales. They grow on soil and seem sapropbic but also have some root-association.
There are very few members of the Boletales in the rain forest, since most of them are ecto-mycorrhizal species and the majority of fungi are decomposers and parasites and not root associated as most boletes are. It is probably edible, but we only saw very few specimen and they were larvae-riddled just like their northern brethren.
Boletinellus exiguus (Singer & Digilio) Watling, formerly Grodon exiguus was the only other member of the bolete family we came across. It grew on the base of trunks of living trees. It is associated with Andean Alder (Alnus acuminata), which grows along streams above 1500m. Thus, Gyrodon exiguus is not a low-land Amazon forest species.
Cup Fungi in the Sarcoscyphaceae - Pezizales - Ascomycota
Cookeina tricholoma, a true beauty!
No mascara needed to bring out these eye-lashes.
Cookeina tricholoma and Cookeina speciosa growing on the same piece of wood.
A row of Cookeina tricholoma growing out of a decaying branch.
Cookeina speciosa
Cookeina speciosa in different stages of development. What a range of colors!
Phillipsia domingensis (Berk.) Berk., also a member of the Sarcoscyphaceae. A slug had taken a bite out of its cap.
Cool Conks
An Amauroderma belonging to a big genus, which is especially common in the tropics, in the Ganodermataceae family. In the Northern Hemisphere Lacquer conks (Ganoderma spp.) are the closest relatives, Ganoderma lucidum known as Ling Zhi or Reishi is a major myco-medicinal. Not surprisingly some Amauroderma species are regarded medicinal in Traditional Chinese Medicine and listed in "Fungi Pharmacopoeia"by Liu Bo & Bau Yun-sun, Oakland, 1980.
Looking at the pores of the same Amauroderma. The cap is probably 5 cm across.
A branching Hymenochaete damaecornis Link ex Lev.
Hymenochaete luteobadia
Lenzites (Trametes) elegans, whose hymenium can be pored, labyrinthian or nicely gilled (see below).
Seen in Lago Agrio
A big Hymenochaete, there are lots of these beautifully banded and relatively thin-fleshed, but sometimes big conks out in the rainforest.
Xylaria and Related Wood Decomposers
There seem to be hundreds of these blackish Ascomycetes.....
This big Xylaria (up to 15 cm tall) is looking quite similar to Dead Man's Finger, Xylaria polymorpha, but X. polymorpha is supposedly not distributed in South America. Quite similar looking to this specimen is Xylaria aenea, which is reported from Panama (Guzman and Piepenbring 2011. Los Hongos de Panama)
Xylarias do not have to be boring and black. Xylaria globosa puts on quite a show!
At least when it is emerging, with maturity (see below) it becomes all drab and round, sounds familiar, eh?

Mature specimens of Xylaria globosa with pink flesh / context radiating from the point of attachment to the stipe. Jean Lodge informed me, that when they are overmature, they become hollow, sometimes with little radiating wisps of the remnant context. An interesting discussion to X. globosa can be found at the AscoFrance site.

An anamorph of a Xylaria, possibly Xylocoremium flebilliforme
A fungal organism that only produces conidia (or conidiaspores) is known as an anamorph. Conidia are asexual spores, basically reproductive cell clones. Anamorphs do not grow stromata or fruiting bodies, only teleomorphs do.  
A very fresh Xylaria, although at first I wanted to see a Cordyceps.
Unidentified Xylaria
Xylaria chordiformis Lloyd
Xylaria globosa, the Bleeding Xylariainitializing growth.
An anamorph of a Xylaria still covered by lots of conidia-spores, asexually produced reproductive cells. It could be Xylocoremium flebilliforme.
And another Xylariaceae with a very different structure.
Thamnomyces chordalis
Thamnomyces chordalis is another Xylariaceae. it can grow to a length nearly 1 meter.
In Bolivia it is known as "Pelo de brujo", hair of the wizzard.
Xylaria comosa group
A strangely yellow colored Xylaria, that otherwise looks like associated with Xylaria comosa.
Puffballs, Earth Stars & Corals
Two earth stars, one not open yet - Geastrum sp.
A buttressed root system. Some study showed that the same amount of buttressed and not buttressed trees came down in a hurricane, strange.
Vascellum sp. a puffball with papery separation tissue between stem base and spore mass.
coral encountered in Jatun Sacha Preserve, Napo, Feb. 2010 © Daniel Winkler
Pyyrhoglossum sp., a cortinarioid mushroom, growing on decaying wood! What great colors! Jatun Sacha Preserve, Napo, Feb. 2010 © Daniel Winkler

Leucocoprinus birnbaumii also known as Lepiota lutea
or by the beautiful British name "Plantpot Dapperling".
Well, that hat shape, slender stem and golden color is just dapper against the dark rain forest ground.
The jaunty Dapperling apparently made it out of the Amazon rainforest into hot houses and flower pots around the world.
Jatun Sacha Preserve, Napo, Feb. 2010 © Daniel Winkler

An unidentified lepiotaceous mushroom encountered near Lago Agrio.
Cystoderma luteohemisphericum Dennis, a tiny, but scaly powdercap.
Agaricus rhoadsii ? Jatun Sacha Preserve, Napo, Feb. 2010 © Daniel Winkler

Leucocoprinus birnbaumii

Lepiota, reminded me of L. atrodisca, but probably something else, since Lepiota atrodisca is a North American species. There are many species of Lepiotas out in the rain forest.
Gold cap (Psilocybe cubensis formerly also Stropharia cubensis) growing in horse manure. These dark spored agarics are common in tropical South America. Strangely, indigenous people do not seem to have had a use for them, although they discovered and used more psychotropic plants than any other culture on the globe.
Mind-boggling Multitude of Marasmius Mushrooms
thus it is pretty difficult to attach meaningful species names.....
An orange brown pinwheel or parachute mushroom (Marasmius sp.) that lives of decomposing fallen leaves as many of its relatives in the rainforest.
This Marasmius shows cross-veined gills, the interconnected secondary gills. I love the contrast between stem color and cap.
This orange parachute mushroom, Marasmius cladophyllus shows even more profusely developed cross-veined gills, which is denoted in the species epithet cladophyllus - branch-gilled.
Marasmiellus nigripes a.k.a. Tetrapyrgos nigripes growing from the stem of a big leaf. There is no basal mycelium at the stem base, it connects directly to the substrate.
Tiny electric purple pinwheel mushrooms, possibly in the Marasmius haematocephalus group, the Mauve Parachute. Ecuador, Feb. 2011  © Daniel Winkler
Marasmius haematocephalus group
Maybe another Marasmius, but I would not bet my lunch on it. I like the rough surface of this little guy.
Hygrocybe species
Wood Ears and Jellies
Auricularia cornea, one of three species of wood ears we found.
An Auricularia and a resupinate fungus growing out of a dead branch
Auricularia delicata with its beautiful reticulated underside.
Fan-shaped Jelly (Dacryopinax spathularia) growing on rotting wood.

Supersized inflorescence of a Lobster Claw (Heliconia sp.). One of many Heliconia species we saw. Now Heliconia has its own family, the Heliconiaceae, formerly it was classified with the Banana (Musaceaefamily. Ecuador, Feb. 2011.  © Daniel Winkler
White Ginger Lily or Butterfly Flower (Hedychium coronarium, Zingiberaceae), locally known as Lirio del muerto is an invasive species introduced from the Himalayas.
This bright red flower grew in the shady undergrowth of primary forest.

Achote, Bixa orellana, the source of red body paint used in the Amazon forest by many indigenous groups.
An inflorescence or cluster of flowers of Beehive Ginger, Zingiber spectabile (Zingiberaceae), an introduced ornamental from Southeast Asia. There are many other native wild ginger plants as well, but not as spectacular. Note the three flowers in bloom close to the top. And yes, the flower is structured so it can retain water.
An Onicidum orchid growing epiphytically in Jatun Sacha Preserve, Napo, Feb. 2010 © Daniel Winkler
Gradually ripening fruits of a Panama Hat Palm - Carludovica palmata. Panama hats originate from Ecuador. It is named a Panama hat since these Ecuadorian hats were made for workers of the Panama canal a century back. It is still cultivate dfor its useful fibers. The Panama hat palm is not a true palm, but belongs to the Cyclanthaceae, Pandanales.
A White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora), one of many stunning beautiful hummingbirds.
A purple dragon flies  with translucent wings.
Cool bugs everywhere! I only photographed a few, already too many mushroom pictures to manage.
Link to awesome Fungi of Ecuador
by Danish mycologists Jens H. Petersen & Thomas Læssøe
A tiny, we are talking less than inch small, Rufus-Brest Hermit - Glaucis hirsuta – a humming bird that builds nests under ferns or Heliconias above creeks.
A Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), the world's largest rodent , likes to hang out near water in the rain forest. 
An Pale-Mandible Aracari (Pteroglossus erythropygius), a small Toucan seen in Mindo.

                                                                                                            Other people's Photos

A beautiful Lepiota mushroom, that could be a new taxa according to Larry Evans. © E. Hendley
Light blue Clitocybula azurea according to Petersen and Læssøe "a very characteristic agaric in low to mid level wet forests of Ecuador" and dark blue Leptonia in the Entolomataceae.   © E. Hendley
Earth stars (Geastrum sp.), a beautiful example of these puffball-like fungi that are found in the jungle. Ecuador, Jan 2006 © Larry Evans
A wood decomposer, probably a Stereum species in the Podoscyphaceae.  
Scarabaeus digested by an unknown Cordyceps species. Cordyceps is one of the most disturbing and useful sorts of medicinal mushrooms ever discovered, growing here on a scarab beetle. The Upper Amazon basin is a world biodiversity hotspot of these insect-eating fungi. Jan. 2007, Madidi, Bolivia © Larry Evans
Probably a Hygrophorus related fungus. © E. Hendley
Cotylidia, one of the unusual wood decomposing fungi found in the Yungas and jungles of Bolivia. Near Esmeraldas, Feb. 2006 © Larry Evans
 Staheliomyces cinctus, a new world tropical stinkhorn first found in Bolivia during Larry's 2008 expedition. © Larry Evans
A colorful fungi, probably a Laccaria relative © Larry Evans
These yellow collybioid mushrooms with deeply lobed cap margins are eaten by the locals when they are fresher than these shown here. © E. Hendley
Real light photo of bioluminescent fungi found in Madidi National Park, Bolivia.
 © Larry Evans
The cespitose cluster of Lentinus concavus, an edible and tasty mushroom. This  wood decaying fungus shows promise as an oil degrading fungus as well. On the left are the white caps of Lentinus concavus depicted. Seen in Chalalan, Bolivian Amazon, 2- 2014 © D. Winkler
Oil pollution in the jungle in Ecuador
Ecuador's rainforest in Jatun Sacha rainforest preserve, seen from the observation tower that penetrates the tree canopy. Everything looks so verdant and virgin from above in Ecuador's Amazon. However, in some places on the ground are serious pollution problems.  Ecuador, Feb. 19, 2007  © Larry Evans
Donald Moncayo digs oil from down slope of a "restored" oil site in which several feet of soil were bulldozed atop a pool of crude petroleum.
 Ecuador, Feb. 22, 2010. © Larry Evans
Donald Moncayo holding up a tree rotter near the oil seeping site.
 Ecuador, Feb. 22, 2010. © Larry Evans
An oil lake in Ecuador's rainforest caused by irresponsible Texaco exploitation techniques.  The black oil is toxic and contaminates water supplies; thousands of locals have died prematurely from various cancers associated with this contaminationFor more details check out Amazon Mycorenewal Project webpages   Ecuador, Feb. 22, 2010. © Larry Evans
Here the oil in the jungle seeping out of the ground.
 Ecuador, Feb. 22, 2010. © Larry Evans
In the test area of the Amazon Mycorenewal Project bamboo tubes are buried, which were filled with oyster mushroom culture and substrate. Less than 3 weeks after this test plot was established  a change in the soil was apparent.
A buttressed root system. Some study showed that the same amount of buttressed and not buttressed trees came down in a hurricane, strange.
It's grooming time © E. Hendley
Fungal Jungal in action! Larry Evans trying to identify yet another wood digester.
© E. Hendley

Last changes 10-24-2018

Page first uploaded Oct. 26, 2010
Link to awesome Fungi of Ecuador
by Danish mycologists Jens H. Petersen & Thomas Læssøe
Link to their 40 page pdf full of great mushroom images. The text is in Danish, but all images have also English subtitles.
Great Webpage on Human rights, especially indigenous peoples' rights and biodiversity protection in the Amazon region: Amazon Watch
                  Detailed  Itinerary for MushRoaming Ecuador 2011
                                          with Larry Evans & Daniel Winkler
Feb 12 Friday   Quito - Group meets - Mia Leticia
Botanical Garden, Gondola ride, the Telefériqo, to the summit of Pichincha volcano,
Museo Ethnohistorico, Dinner: Thai Lotus
Feb 13 Quito - Chocolate Jungle Lodge, Puka Urku
Along the highway
Leotis hirsute - Lamiaceae - orange
Lupinus like
Polylepis hisuta-forests
Papallacta Pass - Paso de Papallacta (13,417ft, 4050m)
Crossing from Pichincha Province into Napo Province
Vegetation (Perennials):
Werneria nubigena - Compositae
Gentinella sp.
Plantago rigida
Chuqurahua jussieui - Asteraceae
Loricaria thyoides - Asteraceae
Vasellum pratense puffball, no pore, no base
Coprinus atramentarius
"noodle lichen"

Cascadas de Mama Ocllo y Mama Paccha (8050ft)

Alnus acuminata  - Andean alder with bromeliad epiphytes

 Lunch in Baeza (6240ft)

 Arrival in Misahualli (1300ft, 420m)

Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)
Mushrooms at boat landing:
Pluteus sp.
Auricularia sp.
Conk-- The first of many Hymenochaetes!

Canoe to Chocolate Jungle Lodge (1300ft, 420m)

 Feb 14 CJL - Excursion downstream on the Napo river AmaZOOnica

Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea
Swallow-tailed Kite - Elinoides forficatus

 Animals in rehabilitation at AmaZOOnica link:

           English            Scientific            Spanish
Common woolly monkey       Lagotrix lagothricha                 Chorongo
Squirrel monkey                     Saimiri sciureus                        Mono barizo
Brown capuchin monkey       Cebus apella                             Mono capuchino cafe
Jaguarondi                              Herpailurus yaguouarundi      Gato de monte
Ocelot                                      Felis pardalis                            Tigrillo
Collared peccary                    Tayassu tajacu                          Sajino
Capybara                                 Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris     Capibara
Black agouti                            Dasyproctes fuliginosa            Watusa / guatusa
Orange agouti
Tortoise                                   Geochelone denticulata           Terrestre / motelo
Turtle                                       Podecnemis expansa               Tortuga de agua
Spectacled Caiman                Caiman crocodilus                   Caiman de anteojos
Boa constrictor                      Boa constrictor                          Boa constrictor
White-throated toucan          Ramphastos tucanus                Tucan goliblanco 
Cookeina speciosa (Fr.: Fr.) Dennis
Amauroderma sp.
Marasmius rhyssophyllus: anastomose, gray cap, white gills
Xylaria sp.
Leucoagaricus tener - Spotted cap, brown droplets, small
Coprinellus lagopus-like tiny, squamulose on wood


Heliconia sp.

Lunch in Ahuano (1160ft)

Feb 15 Chocolate Jungle Lodge

Mushroom growing, horse back riding and mushroom walk
Mushroom growing:
Pleurotus sajor-caju: an industry standard of a strain
Pleurotus concavus - a cespitose and funnel-cap wood decomposer. We tasted this the second night, a local species.
Ganoderma lucidum the famous ReiShi or Ling Zhi/Qi mushroom
The cultures were obtained from a mushroom spawn producer in Quito,
who primarily produces spawn for growing oysters on rice straw in the northwest of Ecuador.
We chopped and boiled a saw-grass and a wild ginger to test for use as substrate that was abundant locally.
Elizabeth reports pretty good growth on the saw-grass and not very much on the ginger.
Mushrooms on JCL:
Cookeina speciosa (Fr.: Fr.) Dennis
Cookeina tricholoma (Mont.) O. Kuntze
Oudemansiella canarii - with the distinctive pyramidal squamules on the viscid cap
Polyporus badius group
Psilocybe cubensis
Calocera cornea - yellow earth tongue:
Marasmius sp.
Marasmius sp. - yellow stemmed
Hymenochaete sp. -orange
Daldinia concentrica
Favolus/Polyporus tenuiculus* (Beauv.: Fr.) Fr.
Hymenochaete sp.
Polyporus (Filoboletus) tricholoma -  pored, thin fleshed, white
Lepiota sp. -squamules
Auricularia sp.*
Lepiota sp. - big, along path
Xylocoremium flabelliform - anamorph, cauliflower like, tiny
Hymenochaete sp.
Polyporus tenuiculus (Beauv.: Fr.) Fr.
Resupinate crust, orange, convoluted
Coprinoid / Psathyrella-like: a large number of undescribed species
Pleurotus concavus* - old & young specimen
Auricularia sp. -hairy, darkish
Monilia sp. - on Cacao: white, powdery, filamentous
Mycena / Xylaria on dried, white cacao fruit shell
Ganoderma applanatum
Marasmius rhyssophyllus - yellow anastomose
* indicates a locally eaten mushroom
Theobroma cacao
Socratea exorrhiza - Machala - walking palm
Heliconia sp.
Feb 16  CJL - Pacay Chicta with William - CJL walk to big fig
Birds (from canoe)
Roadside hawk - Buteo magnirostris
Neotropical Cormorant - Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Speckled Chackalacas - Ortalis guttata
Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea
Russet-backed Oropendola - Psarocolius angustifrons
Yellow-headed Caracara - Milvago chimachima
Black Vulture - Coragyps atratus
Osprey -Pandion haliaetus
Birds (on ground in Pacay Chicta)
Southern Lapwing -Vanellus chilensis
Tropical Kingbird - Tyramus melancholicus
Yellow-brown sparrow - Ammodramus aurifrons
White-winged Swift -Tachycineta albiventer
Ruddy Ground dove - Columbina talpacoti
Black Cuckoo - Crotophaga ani
Silver-backed Tanager - Ramphocelus carbo
Grayish Saltador - Saltador caerulescens
Palm Swift - Tachornis squamata
Amazon Kingfisher - Chloroceryle amazona
White-chested Swift - Streptoprocne zonaris
Blue ground dove - Clarivis pretiosa
Humming bird - ?
Yellow-rumped Cacique - Cacicus cela
Magpie Tanager - Cissopis leveriana
White-eared Jacamara - Galbalcyrhnchus leucotis
Hoatzin - Opoisthocomus hoazin
Flycatcher - Elania sp.
Black-crowned Tityra - Tityra inquisitor
Violaceous Jay - Cyanocorax violaceus
Palm Tanager - Thraupis palmarum
Lettered Alacari - Pteroglossus inscriptus (a toucan)
Orange-backed Troupial - Icterus croconotus
Greater Yellowlegs - Tringa melanoleuca
Chestnut-bellied Seedeater - Sporophila castaneiventris
Molted-back Flycatcher -Elania gigas
Black-billed Thrush - Turdus ignobilis
Birds (from canoe)
Yellow headed Vulture - Cathartes melambrotus
Black Vulture - Coragyps atratus
Turkey Vulture - Cathartes aura
Yellow headed Charachara - Milvago chimachima
Ringed Kingfisher - Megaceryle torquata
Lentinus crinitus [on wood] this common and durable edible is eaten by monkeys in the dry season.
Vascellum sp. - a puffball
Lepiota sp.
Boletus sp.? in decay
Afternoon Walk in the Cacao plantation with Claudio
Lepiota sp.
Geastrum lageniforme Vittad.
Marasmius sp. small, orange, widespaced gills
Hygrocybe miniatus n.p. on cacao
Monkey pod - Guanasa "candle nut"
Ipomea vine
Chanta palm,  thorny
Feb 17 CJL - Estacion Biologica Jatun Sacha - link
ClimateThe average yearly temperature is 25ºC, it rains close to 5,000mm per year, on an average of 200 days.
The lowest rainfall is between November to January and the highest between April to July.
Chapirona-  Capirona decarticans - Rubiaceae - Naked tree, smooth bark
Chonta pambil - Iriartea deltoidea, Arecaceae - stilted, penis-like root shoots - link
Oncidium? Orchid
Hymenochaete luteobadia - orange with white margin, our most commonly spotted shelf fungus, called the "silla de mono" monkey chair by the locals
Hygrophorus "conicus" - scaly cap  !confirmed!
Marasmius haematocephala
Xylaria sp. - big, black fusiform
Ganoderma sp.
Polyporus (Filoboletus) tricholoma
Oudemansiella "canarii"
Leucopaxillus gentianeus - staining red, acrid, cotton base
Geastrum sp.
Auricularia sp.
Cymatoderma sp. - likely dendricticum?
Clathrus ruber - basket stinkhorn [prob. introduced from Europe]
Crepidotus sp.
Phillipsia domingensis
Leucocoprinus birnbaumii
Xylaria sp. - big, tan fingers
Marasmius sp. - blue stemmed, tiny
Marasmius sp.
Agaricus sp.
Agaricus rhoadsii sp. - cespitosered-brown cap
Marasmius haematocephala
Leucocoprinus birnbaumii
Hygrocybe sp.
Ganoderma sp.
Stemonitis-like slime molds
Lycogala sp. - pink tiny balls
Lycoperdon nigrescens
Marasmius rhyssophyllus
Amauroderma sp.
Hymenochaete damaecornis
Clitocyboide "Lyophyllum" -  blue-gray cap
Ophiocordyceps australis on ant
Xylaria sp. -small
Metacordyceps? sp. - on larva, orange sporophyte, white perithecia
Hexagonia sp. - small, "big pored"
Hymenochaete sp.
Marasmius sp.
Clavulina sp.
Podoscypha sp.
Ramaria sp. - coral-like, abundant mycelial mat
Cotylidia aurantiaca
Clitocybula azurea
Marasmius hexagonia

Feb 18 CJL - Lago Agrio

Canoe ride down the Napo River with Tony. Lunch on Jonas property near Chontapunta (1100 ft).
Crossing from Napo Province into Orellana Province
Transfer from canoe to bus in Coca, officially known as Puerto de Francisco de Orellana (830 ft),
Crossing from Orellana Province into Sucumbios Province
Drive to Lago Agrio (1030 ft), city stroll, Hotel El Cofan

Feb 19 Lago Agrio - CJL

Visit of contaminated former oil drilling sites with Donald Mancayo -  Carapa & Lago Vento.
Mushrooms Carapa:
Auricularia?, stipiate (0394) also some small Heterotextus fit this description
Auricularia delicata - with the ribbed underside that looks like tripe.
Mushrooms Lago Vento:
Paneolus sp. -in grass
Russula sp. & ??
Lepiota sp.
Conk, white, pseudo-gilled (0428)

Drive back - lunch in La Joya de los Sachas

Stop at "La Cascada del Rio Hollin at the Foot of Mt. Sumoc National Park - Tena -
Gloeophyllum sp. (previously Lenzites)
Dinner in Misahualli
Feb 20 Sunday CJL
Mushroom & caterpillar walk in the cacao plantation with Claudio.
Hydnopolyporus sp. - white convoluted Sparassis-like sapro, now Cotylidia?, among the Podoscyphaceae
Lepiota sp.
Psathyrella sp.
Psilocybe cubensis - Gold cap
Pleurotus concavus - the edible local oyster, apparent petroleum digester as well.
Cystoderma luteohemisphericum Dennis
Hygrocybe sp. - yellow stem on ground
Auricularia delicata (Fr.) Henn. - reticulate
Psathyrella sp. - tiny on palm
Pluteus sp. -"metal discus" on duff
Pleurotus / Pleurocybella sp.
Collybioid - gray close gills
Limacella sp.
Mycena "bulbopodium" - frequently encountered, never properly named
Lepiota sp. - small, like clypeolaria
Hymenochaete - black
Coprinus - on wood
Thelephora sp.
Xylaria sp. -hollow, for ear ache
Clitocybula azurea
Xylaria sp.
Xylaria sp. - cauliflower like
Xylaria sp. - spatulate
Bactris gasipaes, Arecaceae - Chontaduro - Peach palm, thorny w/ yellow & orange fruits
Boat ride to the Kichwa Museum and Zoo in Chichico, guided by Clarissa?
Lucas the Woolly monkey (Lagotrix lagothricha), Parrot Red Brocket (Mazama americana) the Amazon deer,
Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), Ocelot (Felis pardalis), Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris),
Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), Boa constrictor, Caiman

Fishing on the Napo River with Claudio

Feb 21 CJL - Mariposario Butterfly farm
Mariposario Butterfly farm
Misahualli Shopping
Night walk with William
Pycnoporus sanguineus - Blood-red Bracket  
Auricularia delicata (Fr.) Henn  - "reticulate"
Lentinus / Pleurotus concavus - on burned Chontaduro base
Multiclavula sp. - lichen fruiting body, white on green algae
Dictyophora indusiata, now Phallus indusiatus - Veiled stinkhorn
Pluteus sp. 15 cm
Pleurotus / Pleurocybella sp. - Angelwing oyster
Coprinus "cebollatipes"
Mycena sp.  - clustered on palm
Lepiota sp. -  mid-size whitish, light brown center
Geastrum sp.
Feb 22 CJL - Jatun Sacha Botanical Gardens
With Gardens' guide Alberto
Sangre de Draco - Croton draco - Dragon's blood tree, sap good for wounds and skin irritations
Ayuhuasca - Banisteriopsis caapi Ajos sacha - Mansoa alliacea- low level hallucinogen with a garlicky smell link
Iguayusa - Ilex guayusa, tea, soak for 5 min only, energizing, against insects, purification  
                     1 hour steep turns it into an abortive and causes diarrhea.
MushroomsXylaria sp. - on elongated stems
Ophiocordyceps australis - on ant
Ophiocordyceps curculionium - on weevil
Polyporus tenuiculus (Beauv.: Fr.) Fr.
Leptonia sp.
Lycoperdon sp.
Marasmius haematocephala
Lentaria sp.
Cotylidia aurantiaca / spectabilis?
Visit of Kichwa community with traditional fish lunch, chichi, dance performance
Coprinus dissematus on ground

River Inner tubing on the Napo

Feb 23 CJL
Canoe ride down the Napo River to Nisa Coche for mushroom hunt
Boletus sp.??
Nolanea murraii - white with pointy cap, Entolomataceae
Clitocybula azurea - beautiful blue
Polyporus sp.
Clitocybula azurea with mucor
Xylaria globosa (Spreng. ex Fr.) Mont.  - w/ red drops
Hymenochaete - with labyrinth-like pores
Cotylidia? / Hydnopolyporus?
Ganoderma sp. - big, immature fruiting body
Melanosporum sp.?
Lepiotoid with squamules
Lycogalopsis solmsii Ed. Fischer - puffball growing on leaf
Gymnopilus sp.
Auricularia - stipiate again, Heterotextus?
Psathyrella sp. - brown cap
Rufous-breasted hermit - Glaucis hirsuta - Humming bird with nests under ferns above creek
Excursion to Cascadas de Umbuni Waterfalls via Misahualli
Bats in cave
Coprinellus disseminatus
Lepiota clypeolaria - appendiculate
Lepiota sp. L.atrodisca?
Marasmius rhyssophyllus
Metacordyceps sp. close to Metacordyceps martialis or Cordyceps martialis?
Marasmius cladophyllus - big, orange! anamastose, wow!
Feb 24 CJL - Otavalo (8370 ft, 2700 m)
Drive via Baeza over the Paso de Papallacta Pass (13,417 ft, 4050 m) to Otavalo
Otavalo Market, Farewell Dinner Hotel Donna Esther
Feb 25 Friday  Otavalo
Fungal fellowship grows apart

Last edited on Wed, June 12, 2019, 8:43 am